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Louisiana State Guide

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Louisiana is located in the southern part of the country. Baton Rouge is its capital and New is its largest city. Louisiana is commonly referred to as Bayou State, Creole State, Child of the Mississippi, Sportsman's Paradise, Pelican State, Sugar State and The Boot. The state is bordered to the west by Texas, Arkansas to its north and state of Mississippi to the east. The state became a 18th state of the US on April 30, 1812 [1].

Louisiana Fast Facts:

Capital city: Baton Rouge
Largest city: New Orleans
Sate Bird:  Brown Pelican
State Tree: Bald Cypress
State Flower: Magnolia
State Mammal: American Black Bear

History of Louisiana

In the early century before the onset of the Europeans, Louisiana was inhabited by Native Americans. The area formed part of the Eastern Agricultural Complex. In 2000 years back, the Marksville culture emergedout of the earlier Tchefuncte culture. The culture is regarded as ancestral to the Natchez and Taensa communities. The Mississippian culture emerged about 1,000 years ago from the Woodland period.

In the 1730s, the Cresap's War or the Conojocular War broke out as a conflict for border between Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The war led to various violent incidents and magnified through the first half of the 18th century and military forces were deployed to tackle the situation. Later in the 2nd half of the century, Mason-Dixon Line was made the northern boundary of the state. In 1788, Louisiana became the 7th state to adopt the United States Constitution.

The 19th century brought in several revolutionary changes and developments in the state. During this century, after the Revolutionary War, the state underwent economic changes and system reformation that curtailed much of the slavery system. Construction of federally funded nationally highway, public schools and railroads started in Louisiana during the 19th century. In the 2nd half of the century, around 1864, slavery was abolished. In the later years, the present day Louisiana Constitution was adopted.

Louisiana Timeline History

  • 1519 - Alvarez de Pindea discovered mouth of the Mississippi
  • 1673 - Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet reached the Mississippi River.
  • 1699 - Pierre Le Moyne Iberville became the 1st European to discover the Mississippi River.
  • 1700 - Fort Maurepas established on Bay of Biloxi. Fort de La Boulaye established near Pointe a la Hache or Phoenix.
  • 1714 - Louis Juchereau found Fort St.
  • 1716 - Fort Rosalie established at present-day Natchez.
  • 1718 - Founded New Orleans and called Phillippe Duc D'Orleans.
  • 1722 - A hurricane destroyed much of New Orleans.
  • 1723 - New Orleans became the capital of Louisiana
  • 1730- Governor Etienne de Perier pioneered the battle against the Natchez Indians.
  • 1732 - King Louis XV names Bienville governor of Louisiana.
  • 1735 - Jean Louis, a sailor, leaves his savings to establish the first charity hospital in New Orleans
  • 1771 - Spanish government established state schools.
  • 1800 - Treaty of San Ildefonso cessed Louisiana to France.
  • 1808 - First public school opened in Pointe Coupee Parish
  • 1812 - Louisiana joined the Union.
  • 1823 - First natural gas field opened in the state.
  • 1838 - First Mardi Gras parade was held in New Orleans
  • 1849 - Baton Rouge was made the capital of Louisiana
  • 1901 - The first oil was found few miles away from Jennings
  • 1921 - Louisiana adopted a new constitution.
  • 1977 - Ernest Morial was appointed mayor of New Orleans

Geography of Louisiana

Geography Fast Facts:

Total Area - 51,843 sq mi
Longitude - 88o 49′ W to 94o 03′ W
Latitude - 28o 56′ N to 33o 01′ N
Largest city - New Orleans
Highest point - Driskill Mountain, 535 ft
Mean point - 100ft
Lowest point - New Orleans, 8ft
Time Zone- Central Time Zone
Louisiana is in the Southern part of the United States covering a total area of 51,843 square miles, of which 43,203.90 square miles are land area [2]. It is the 31st state of the nation and is bordered to the west by Texas, Arkansas to its north and state of Mississippi to the east. The major rivers of Louisiana are Patapsco River, Potomac River, Patuxent River and Susquehanna River.
The surface of the state is geographically divided into two parts, the alluvial along the coast and the uplands of the north.Atchafalaya River, Mississippi River, Ouachita River, Red River, Sabine River are the major rivers of the state.

Topography of Louisiana

Louisiana, topographically of the state consists of-
  • East Gulf Coastal Plain
  • Louisiana's eastern half consists of Ocean City, the cities of Salisbury and Annapolis.
  • The Piedmont region consists of western and northern greater Baltimore, Westminster, Gaithersburg, Hagerstown and Frederick.
  • Western Louisiana is a higher elevations region, comprising of Garrett and Allegany counties.
  • The Chesapeake Bay

Louisiana Flora and Fauna

Louisiana has healthy and abundant flora and fauna. The annual plentiful precipitation across the entire state promotes the growth of many plants. Some of the important plant species of the state include, white oak, black-eyed Susan, seagrass, reeds and some foreign species, such as the Crape Myrtle, live oak, hardy palm trees and Italian Cypress. Additionally, some invasive plant species of kudzu, multi-flora rose, tree of heaven and Japanese stilt-grass are also cultivated in the state.

Some of the major fauna of Louisiana include white tailed deer, black bears, rare wild horses, foxes, bobcats, coyote, otters and raccoons. The state's amphibian and reptile population is the Diamondback Terrapin turtle. The Baltimore Oriole is the state bird of Louisiana.

Forests in Louisiana

Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) manages, restores and safeguards the state's forests, trees and resources. The department is dedicated to promote building up new forests so as to enhance the growth of native plants and animals. Additionally, DNR maintains a strict vigilance to reduce all deteriorating effects to the forests and its resources from insects, wildfire, land conversion, disease and any other negative agents.


Given below are the State Forests in Louisiana:

Contact Louisiana Department of Natural Resources
617 North Third Street
LaSalle Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70802
PHONE: (225) 342-4500
FAX : (225) 342-5861

Learn more: Louisiana Department of Natural Resources

Climate of Louisiana

Louisiana has a humid subtropical climate comprising of hot and humid summer seasons and milder cool winter months is prominent in the eastern region of Louisiana. Some average seasonal snowfall happens in the Piedmont region. Humid continental climate also influences the regions around the Cumberland Valley.

The East Coasts are regions rich in precipitation. Louisiana’s annual precipitation ranges from 35 to 45 inches which intensifies as the elevation increases. Average rainfall is spread throughout the state during rainy seasons. The state's coastal areas and western mountains receive average annual snowfall. Due to the proximity to the Atlantic Coast, the state lies fairly exposed to tornadoes, tropical cyclones and hurricanes.

Demographics of Louisiana

Louisiana is a small state in the United States with an estimated population of 4,670,724 as of 2015 estimation by the U.S Census Bureau, which reflected an increase of 2.6% since the year 2014. The population density of the state is 104.9 person per square mile which is the highest in the nation [3]. Louisiana’s center of population is situated in the unincorporated community of Pointe Coupee Parish .

Louisiana Racial Distribution-
  • White alone - 63.7%
  • Black or African American - 30.4%
  • Asian - 2.8%
  • Multiracial American - 1.6%
  • Native American - 1.0%
  • Other Races - 1.5%
New Orleans and Baton Rouge are most populated regions where most people of the state reside. The top ancestries of Louisiana as reported by its residents include French, German, American, Irish, Italian, English and Scottish.

Louisiana Population Quick Facts:

  • Population, 2015 - 4,670,724
  • Population, 2014 - 4,649,676
  • Population, percent change, April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2.6%
  • Persons under 5 years, percent, 2013 - 6.6%
  • Persons under 18 years, percent, 2013 - 23.9%
  • Persons 65 years and over, percent, 2013 - 13.6%
  • Female persons, percent, 2013 - 51.1%

Some of the largest religious groups in Louisiana are-
  • Protestant
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
  • Roman Catholic
  • Buddhist, Muslim
  • Mormon
  • Jewish
  • Hindu.

Economy of Louisiana

The economy of Louisiana is fast growing. The state's median household income is the highest in the nation. The major sectors that contribute to the economic growth of the state include chemical products, processed foods, petroleum and coal products, transportation equipment, tourism and paper products. 

Economy Fast Facts in 2013 [4]
  • Personal Income Tax Brackets - 2% to 4%
  • Sale Tax - 4%
  • Real per capita personal income (chained dollars) - $24,775

Some of the major services sectors of the state include-Chart
  • Community
  • Business
  • Personal services

Agriculture in Louisiana

  • The top 5 agricultural products based on revenue generated include broilers (young chickens), dairy products, greenhouse and nursery products, soybeans and corn for grain.

  • Greenhouse and nursery products generate most of the state’s crop income.

  • The main vegetable crops produced are tomatoes and sweet corn.

  • Apple is the major fruit produced in Louisiana.

  • The major farm income of the state is incurred from livestock and its products.

  • The state's major livestock products are broilers and dairy products.

  • Other important livestock products include eggs, beef cattle, turkeys and hogs.

Industries in Louisiana

  • The major manufactured products of the state are computer and electronic products, including computer components, medical devices, communications equipment.

  • Ranked 2nd in the state manufacturing sector is food processing (alcoholic beverages, soft drinks, spices, poultry products, bread)

  • Ranked 3rd in the state manufacturing sector is chemical production.

  • The state’s most important mined product is crushed stone.

  • Limestone, sand and gravel, marble, coal, clay, natural gas, Portland cement and peat are other valuable mined products in Louisiana.

  • Louisiana leads the nation in the production of blue crabs.

Transportation in Louisiana

The Louisiana Department of Transportation (MDOT) overviews the entire transportation network of the state to ensure safe and easy commuting of people and goods. Louisiana encompasses 16 Interstate Highways entirely or partially within the state, of which 6 are primary and 10 are auxiliary Interstates. I-95 is Louisiana’s longest primary Interstate. The Cycle Louisiana program is initiated to promote the people of the state to incorporate bicycling in their daily activities and also to make it as a healthy transportation alternative.

Air transport is an essential gateway of Louisiana and serves the locals and tourists from all over the world. It is the major mode that offers all round effective intercity and interstate connectivity. The Federal Aviation Administration authorizes and oversees all flight operations in Arizona.

The railways are also one of the main transportation modes in Louisiana that serve people from all walks of life and also important for cargo transfer. Amtrak is a railroad system which is publicly financed and serves the nation as intercity passenger train service. Amtrak operates over 300 trains daily and links over 500 destinations in 46 states.

Louisiana has some important canals that serve many sea ports and are the vital hubs for major export and import of goods and cargo movement and distribution across the state, the United States and also throughout the world. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is one major canal that serves as an important route for cargo movement across Louisiana and beyond.

Learn more: Transportation in Maryland

Government of Louisiana

Learn more: Government of Louisiana

Education in Louisiana

Louisiana is well known throughout the nation in providing superior education and has been ranked 1st in many aspects of education. Louisiana State Department of Education administers and manages the functioning of Louisiana's primary and secondary education. The State Board of Education appoints the State Superintendent of Schools, for a four-year terms, who is the state’s highest ranked educational official.

Learning Facility

Louisiana top universities are-

Louisiana sports quick facts-

  • Louisiana has over one major professional sports league franchise - the National Football League's New Orleans Saints and the National Basketball Association's New Orleans Pelicans.

  • Every year New Orleans hosts the New Orleans Bowl and the Sugar Bowl college football games

  • Since 1938, the Zurich Classic of New Orleans was held as a PGA Tour golf tournament.

Interesting Facts about Louisiana

  • Nicknames of Louisiana are Bayou State, Creole State, Child of the Mississippi, Pelican State, Sugar State, Sportsman's Paradise and The Boot.

  • New orleans host the world famous "Mardi Gras"

  • The Motto of the state is Union, Justice, Confidence.

  • Baton Rouge is its capital.

  • New Orleans is its largest city.

  • Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV.

  • Louisiana encompasses the tallest state capitol building in the US - at 450 feet.

  • Louisiana is the only US state that does not have counties.

  • Louisiana is the lone state in the union that still follows the Napoleonic Code law.

  • Breaux Bridge is called the world's "Crawfish Capital"

  • The Kaplan city is called "The Most Cajun place on earth".


  1. Louisiana Statehood
  2. Louisiana Area
  3. Louisiana Demographics
  4. Economy Fast Facts

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